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Wet chemistry is a term used to refer to chemistry generally done in the liquid phase. There are two categories of Wet Chemistry; one is classical, and the other is instrumental Wet Chemistry. Microlab has done classical and instrumental wet chemistry. Microlab has advanced testing equipment, knowledge, and experienced employees for the Wet analysis. Microlab follows the approved laboratory procedures (ASTM, IS, ISO, IEC, EPA, ASME).
Metals and Alloys
The chemical composition of metal and alloys helps for a variety of purposes. Chemical composition can determine the quality and composition or concentration of elements present in the material. Several industries and manufacturing units use these tested materials. Microlab uses the Wet and Instrumental methods for quantification of elements.
Microlab has the facility to test these metals and alloys:
Microlab has two different kinds of equipment for Carbon and Sulphur analysis.
- Strohelin Apparatus (Wet method)
- G4 ICARUS (instrumental method)
Several gas elements are present on the earth. Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen are three main elements that influence the properties of metals such as Steel, Titanium, and Copper.
Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen affect the strength of the metal. It can cause brittleness, ductility, and hardness influenced by the element concentration. We can assess these to near-accuracy within reasonable costs using sophisticated test equipment.
Measuring Range in Titanium Materials:
The current test methods available are:
Water and Waste water
All plants and animals need water to survive. Water gets contaminated in many ways; on land, air pollution, and other breaches. Water contamination occurs among plants, animals, or humans which causes health problems. Therefore, periodical testing of water is essential.
- Water is a precious material, and we use it for various domestic and industrial activities.
- Drinking water is also known as potable water. It must be free from contaminants such as metals, toxic elements, pesticides, and micro-organisms.
- Microlab has an excellent water testing facility and more competent employees to test the water and wastewater. We have sophisticated instruments for trace element analysis for water.
Water analysis can be classified into:
- Drinking Water as per (IS 10500)
- Construction Water as per (IS 456)
- Reagent Grade Water as per (IS 1070)
- Water for Swimming pool as per (IS 3328)
- Feed Water
- Boiler Water and condensate for high pressure Boilers (IS 10496)
- Waste Water STP(Sewage treatment plant),
- ETP (Effluent treatment plant)
The following parameter to be analyzed in water. PH, Color, odor, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, chloride, TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, etc. Hazardous and toxic elements evaluation (ROHS, WEEE, ELV) as per Euro Directives:
Hazardous Substance Testing
- After disposal, the restricted materials enter the ecosystem and become toxic to humans.
- Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) is also known as Directive 2015/863/EU oriented in the European Union that restricts the use of specific hazardous materials found in electrical and electronic products as well as raw materials and finished products.
- European countries restrict some elements because they will create health problems for humans and contaminate natural life. European countries follow these directives:
- 2002/95/EC (ROHS)
- 2011/65/EU (ROHS 2)
- 2015/863 /EU (ROHS 3)
- EU WEEE Directive 2012/19/EU
- UK WEEE Regulation 2013
- ELV (2000/53/EC, EU (2016/774)
The above directive gives the limitation for the certain elements (ex:Pb,Cd,Hg,Cr6,Br (PBB,PBDE),Phthalates. Microlab has an Excellent facility for completing ROHS tests. Microlab has an Excellent facility for complete ROHS test.
Some materials are hazardous to the environment, pollute landfills, and are dangerous in terms of occupational exposure during manufacturing and disposal.
Hazardous substance evaluations are applicable to the following sectors:
Ferroalloys contain Iron which is added with molten metal while producing steel. Microlab tests the following
Ores and Minerals
- Ores and Minerals are naturally abundant materials available on earth.
- The majority of the ores are from mining and exploration activities.
- The valuable minerals available in one source are called ores. Ores are generally oxides, sulfides, and silicates of respective native metals, such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn, Mn, etc.
Classification of Ores & Minerals that can be:
Coal, coke and graphite:
- Coal is an organic rock compared to most other rocks in the earth’s crust like clay and sandstone that are inorganic. It contains mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. It also contains inorganic constituents (minerals and water).
- Coal is processed in industries to produce coke, tar, and coal gas.
- Coke is a pure form of carbon and hard. However, its porous nature allows liquid or air to pass through it.
- Coke is used to manufacture steel and fuel. Coke acts as a reducing agent in the extraction of metals.
- Coal and coke serve many purposes, and both give energy. Two types of analysis are there, ultimate and proximate analysis.
- Carbon is a component in coal and determines the coal’s strength.
Properties of Coal & Coke are classified as follows:
- Proximate Analysis (Carbon Ash, Volatile Matter, Free Moisture, Inherent Moisture)
- Ultimate Analysis (C, N, H, O, S)
- Gross Calorific Value (GCV)
- Sulfur Content
- Ash Fusion Temperature
Fine chemicals (industrial inorganic chemicals)
- The industrial processes make use of various manufactured chemicals
- Those play a crucial role in the industrial economic strata.
- Chlor- Alkalis
- Copper Sulphate (CuSO4)
- Soda lye
- Lime products
- Activated Carbon
- Fertilizers play a crucial role in agriculture to survive. Plants need a steady supply of macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are in larger quantities than micronutrients.
- Di Ammonium Phosphate
- Murate of Potash (MOP) and Micronutrients
- Cleanliness (Millipore)
- Type of Coating (Metals)