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## Material Testing Categories

## Cement physical and Chemical

## Fine and Coarse aggregate

## Bricks, Blocks and Pavers

## Hardened Concrete

## Soil

## Water

## TMT Bars

## GSB and WMM

## Non Destructive Testing

## Granite, Marbles and Tiles

## Materials testing engineering services help you analyze each material component and ensure high quality. Construction Materials Testing is considered a regulatory requirement for almost all projects of any magnitude where the risk factor is critical due to the use of large quantities of materials.

## Quality that never fails

## Construction Materials Testing starts at the beginning of a project. In some cases, before, to establish a successful foundation. Material testing and inspection are necessary for both vertical and horizontal construction. In both types of development, if the materials align with the original design, it can prevent potential legal claims and ensure high safety.

## Cement Physical Parameter

**Standard Consistency (IS: 4031-4:1988)**– The standard consistency of cement is that consistency, which permit the vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould when tested.

**Initial Setting time****(IS: 4031-5:1988)**– The time available for mixing the cement and placing it in position is an Initial setting time of cement. If delayed further, cement loses its strength.

**Final Setting time****(IS: 4031-5:1988)**– The time at which cement completely loses its plasticity and became hard is a final setting time of cement. The time taken by cement to gain its entire strength is a Final setting time of cement.

**Fineness****(IS: 4031-1:1996)**– Fineness of Cement is measured by sieving cement on standard sieve. The proportion of cement of which the cement particle sizes are greater than the 90 micron is determined.

**Soundness****(IS: 4031-3:1988)**– In the soundness test a specimen of hardened cement paste is boiled for a fixed time so that any tendency to expand is speeded up and can be detected. Soundness means the ability to resist volume expansion.

**Compressive strength****(IS: 4031-6:1988)**– The most common strength test, compressive strength, is carried out on a 50 mm (2-inch) cement mortar test specimen. The test specimen is subjected to a compressive load (usually from a hydraulic machine) until failure.

## Cement Chemical Parameter

- Ratio of percentage of lime to percentage of silica, alumina and iron oxide (IS 4032: 1985).
- Ratio of percentage of Alumina to that of iron oxide (IS 4032: 1985).
- Insoluble residue (IS 4032: 1985).
- Magnesia (IS 4032: 1985).
- Total Sulphur content calculated as Sulphuric anhydride (SO
_{3}) (IS 4032: 1985). - Loss on ignition (IS 4032: 1985).
- Chloride content (IS 4032: 1985).
- Alkali Content (IS 4032: 1985).

## Fine Aggregate

**Sieve Analysis****(IS: 2386-1:1963)**– A sieve analysis (or gradation test) is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution (also called gradation) of a granular material by allowing the material to pass through a series of sieves of progressively smaller mesh size and weighing the amount of material that is stopped by each sieve as a fraction of the whole mass.

**Materials finer than 75 Microns****(IS: 2386-1:1963)**– This test method covers the determination of the amount of material finer than a 75-μm sieve in aggregate by washing. Clay particles and other aggregate particles that are dispersed by the wash water, as well as water-soluble materials, will be removed from the aggregate during the test.

**Clay Lumps****(IS: 2386-2:1963)**– The clay lumps and friable particles are broken down by manipulation, using the thumb and forefinger. The material is washed, dried, and sieved according to the correct test procedure. The materials are weighed and the calculations for the percent of clay lumps and friable particles are performed.

**Specific Gravity (IS: 2386-3:1963)**– Specific gravity of fine aggregate is the ratio of the weight of given volume of aggregates to the weight of equal volume of water.

**Water absorption (IS: 2386-3:1963)**– The increase in weight of aggregate due to water in the pores of the material, but not including water adhering to the outside surface of the particles.

**Bulk Density****(IS: 2386-3:1963)**– The bulk density or unit weight of an aggregate is defined as mass of the aggregate per unit volume.

**Bulking of sand****(IS: 2386-1:1963 )**– Bulking of fine aggregate or sand is the phenomenon of increase in sand volume due to the increase of moisture content.

**Moisture content**– The moisture content of an aggregate is expressed as: If the moisture content is positive, the aggregate has surface moisture and will contribute water.

**Silt Content****(IS: 2386-2:1963)**– Silt content is a fine material which is less than 150 micron. It is unstable in the presence of water. Excessive quantity of silt, not only reduces the bonding of cement and fine aggregates but also affects the strength and durability of work.

## Coarse Aggregate

**Aggregate Crushing Value****(IS 2386-4:1963)**– The aggregate crushing value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load.

**Aggregate Impact value****(IS 2386-4:1963)**– The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to sudden shock or impact, which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slow compressive load.

**Bulk Density****(IS 2386-3:1963)**– The bulk density or unit weight of an aggregate is defined as mass of the aggregate per unit volume.

**Clay Lumps****(IS: 2386-2:1963)**– The clay lumps and friable particles are broken down by manipulation, using the thumb and forefinger. The material is washed, dried, and sieved according to the correct test procedure. The materials are weighed and the calculations for the percent of clay lumps and friable particles are performed.

**Elongation Index****(IS: 2386-2:1963)**– Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one and four-fifth times (1.8 times or 9/5 times) their mean dimension. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63mm and retained on mesh size of 6.3mm.

**Flakiness Index****(IS: 2386-2:1963)**– The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and elongated particles contained in it. The Flakiness index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three- fifths (0.6times) of their mean dimension.

**Sieve Analysis****(IS: 2386-1:1963)**– Particle size determinations on large samples of aggregate are necessary to ensure that aggregates perform as intended for their specified use. A sieve analysis or gradation test determines the distribution of aggregate particles by size within a given sample.

**Specific Gravity (IS: 2386-3:1963)**– Specific gravity of coarse aggregate is the ratio of the weight of given volume of aggregates to the weight of equal volume of water.

**Water absorption (IS: 2386-3:1963)**– The increase in weight of aggregate due to water in the pores of the material, but not including water adhering to the outside surface of the particles.

## Bricks(Burnt Clay and Fly Ash)

**Compression test (IS 3495-1: 1992) –**Compressive strength of bricks is the capacity of brick to resist or withstand under compression when tested on Compressive testing machine [CTM]. The Compressive strength of a material is determined by the ability of the material to resist failure in the form of cracks and fissure.

**Water Absorption test****(IS 3495-2: 1992) –**Water absorption test on bricks are conducted to determine durability property of bricks such as degree of burning, quality and behavior of bricks in weathering.

**Efflorescence test****(IS 3495-3: 1992) –**To know the presence of soluble salts in a brick, placed it in a water bath for 24 hours and dry it in shade. After drying, observe the brick surface thoroughly.

## Blocks (Solid, Hollow, Cellular light Weight and Paver Blocks)

**Compression test –**Compressive strength of blocks is the capacity of block to resist

or withstand under compression when tested on Compressive testing machine [CTM].

The Compressive strength of a material is determined by the ability of the material to

resist failure in the form of cracks and fissure.**Water Absorption test –**Water absorption test on blocks is conducted to determine

durability property of blocks quality.**Block Density test –**Density, mass of a unit volume of a material substance.

## Harden Concrete

**Concrete Cube Compression test (IS 516 Part1/Sec1 : 2021) –**The compressive strength of cubes gives us the information of the potential strength of the concrete mix from which it is sampled. It helps in determining whether correct mix proportions of various mix proportions of various materials were used to get the desired strength.

**Concrete Core Compression test****(IS 516 Part1/Sec1 : 2021) –**Compressive Strength Test on Drilled Concrete Cores is required to determine the strength of hardened concrete in structure.

## Soil

**Field Density Test By core cutter Method (IS 2720-29: 1975) –**The dry density of the compacted soil or pavement material is a common measure of the amount of the compaction achieved during the construction. Therefore field density test is importance as a field control test for the compaction of soil or any other pavement layer. By using core cutter method, bulk density of soil can be quickly calculated and by determining the moisture content and density of soil.

**Field Density Test By sand replacement Method (IS 2720-28: 1975) –**Knowing the dry density of soil or pavement is important to evaluate the degree of compaction achieved during the construction process. A field density test is a common test used to determine the field density of the soil or pavement. The principle of field density test is the replacement of soil excavated materials by the sand, the sand density is known so we can calculate the volume of the sand required to fill the hole. By knowing the volume of the hole excavated in soil and the weight of soil, we can calculate the in-situ density. The in-situ density equals the weight of excavated materials divided by the volume of excavated material.

**Standard Proctor compaction Test****(IS 2720-7: 1980) –**The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory method of experimentally determining the optimal moisture content at which a given soil type will become most dense and achieve its maximum dry density. This process is then repeated for various moisture contents and the dry densities are determined for each.

**Liquid Limit test (IS 2720-5: 1985) –**Liquid limit (LL) is defined as a limiting water content separating the viscous liquid state and plastic state of soil consistency.

**Plastic Limit test (IS 2720-5: 1985) –**Plastic Limit (PL) is the water content at the change from a plastic to a semi-solid state. This test involves repeatedly rolling a soil sample into a thread until it reaches a point where it crumbles

**Free Swelling Index (IS 2720-40: 1977)**– Free Swell Index is the increase in volume of a soil, without any external constraints, on submergence in water.

**Californian Bearing Ratio test****(IS 2720-16: 1987)**– The Californian Bearing Ratio test is a penetration test used to evaluate the subgrade strength of roads and pavements. The results of these tests are used with the curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement.

**Unconfined Compressive Strength (IS 2720-10: 1991) –**In this test, a cylinder of soil without lateral support is tested to failure in simple compression, at a constant rate of strain. The compressive load per unit area required to fail the specimen as called unconfined compressive strength of the soil.

## Reinforced Steel(IS 1786: 2008)

**Tensile Test –**Tensile Test is the most common test performed on a reinforced steel bar. The TMT rebar is strained by the tensile force an elongated, generally to the point of failure, for the purpose of determining tensile strength.

**Yield Stress Test –**Yield Stress is defined as the stress at which the TMT rebar will deform plastically i.e cannot be reshaped to the original.

**Percentage Elongation Test –**Percentage elongation is the measure of reinforced bar’s ability to deform prior to breaking. Elongation is an important factor similar to yield strength in choosing the grade of TMT bars.

**Bend & Re-bend Test –**Bend & Re-bend tests are mainly done to evaluate the ductility of the reinforced bar. The bend is performed by bending the steel bar at the midpoint resulting in bending without fracture. The Re-bend test is performed to measure the effect of strain ageing on steel.

**Chemical Analysis Test –**In Chemical Analysis, the TMT reinforced bar is tested for various elements or compositions using Spectrometer. Spectromax using arc and spark excitation is the preferred method to determine the chemical composition of the samples. Chemical analysis results in the percentages of carbon, sulphur, and phosphorus which are important as per BIS.

## Water - Construction purpose

Water chemical test are done by wet analysis and the parameters for the construction purpose are as follows:

**pH at 25◦C – IS:3025:P-11:1983 (RA-2017)****Chloride as Cl, mg/L – IS:3025:P-32:1988 (RA-2019)****Sulphate as SO3, mg/L – IS:3025:P-32:1988 (RA-2019)****Inorganic Solids, mg/L – IS:3025:P-18:1984 (RA-2017)****Organic Solids, mg/L – IS:3025:P-15:1984 (RA-2017)****Suspended Solids, mg/L – IS:3025:P-15:1984 (RA-2017)****To neutralize 100 ml sample of water, using phenolphthalein as an****indicator (ml) – IS:3025:P-22:1986 (RA-2019)**

**To neutralize 100 ml sample of water, using mixed indicator (ml) – IS:3025:P-23:1986 (RA-2019)**

## Granular Sub-Base(GSB)– (MORTH Specification 5th Revision)

*Aggregate Crushing Value***(IS 2386-4:1963)**– The aggregate crushing value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load.

*Aggregate Impact value***(IS 2386-4:1963)**– The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to sudden shock or impact, which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slow compressive load.

*Sieve Analysis***(IS: 2386-1:1963)**– Particle size determinations on large samples of aggregate are necessary to ensure that aggregates perform as intended for their specified use. A sieve analysis or gradation test determines the distribution of aggregate particles by size within a given sample.

Liquid limit (LL) is defined as a limiting water content separating the viscous liquid state and plastic state of soil consistency.*Liquid Limit test*(IS 2720-5: 1985) –

Plastic Limit (PL) is the water content at the change from a plastic to a semi-solid state. This test involves repeatedly rolling a soil sample into a thread until it reaches a point where it crumbles.*Plastic Limit test*(IS 2720-5: 1985) –

*Californian Bearing Ratio test***(IS 2720-16: 1987)**– The Californian Bearing Ratio test is a penetration test used to evaluate the subgrade strength of roads and pavements. The results of these tests are used with the curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement.

## Wt Mix Macadam – (MORTH Specification 5th Revision)

**Aggregate Crushing Value****(IS 2386-4:1963)**– The aggregate crushing value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load.

**Aggregate Impact value****(IS 2386-4:1963)**– The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to sudden shock or impact, which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slow compressive load.

**Elongation Index****(IS: 2386-2:1963)**– Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one and four-fifth times (1.8 times or 9/5 times) their mean dimension. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63mm and retained on mesh size of 6.3mm.

**Flakiness Index****(IS: 2386-2:1963)**– The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and elongated particles contained in it. The Flakiness index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three- fifths (0.6times) of their mean dimension.

**Sieve Analysis****(IS: 2386-1:1963)**– Particle size determinations on large samples of aggregate are necessary to ensure that aggregates perform as intended for their specified use. A sieve analysis or gradation test determines the distribution of aggregate particles by size within a given sample.

## Non-Destructive Testing

**Rebound Hammer Test (IS 516 Part 5/ Sec 4) –**A rebound hammer or concrete hammer test, is a device to measure the elastic properties or strength of concrete, mainly surface hardness.

**Ultrasonic Pulse velocity test (IS 516 Part 5/ Sec 1) –**This test is conducted by passing a pulse of ultrasonic through concrete to be tested and measuring the time taken by pulse to get through the structure. Higher velocities indicate good quality and continuity of the material, while slower velocities may indicate concrete with many cracks or voids.

**Half – Cell potentiometer test (Corrosion test) – (IS 516 Part 5/ Sec 2) –**The half-cell potential test is the only corrosion monitoring technique standardized in ASTM C876 – 15: Standard Test Method for Corrosion Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete. It is used to determine the probability of corrosion within the rebar in reinforced concrete structures.**Carbonation Depth Test – (IS 516 Part 5/ Sec 3) –**Carbonation is a process in which carbon dioxide from the atmosphere diffuses through the porous cover concrete and may reduce the pH to 8 or 9, at which the passivating/oxide film is no longer stable. Carbonation process involves the following two stages: First, the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with water in the concrete pores to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). This is followed by reaction of the carbonic acid with calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2] to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This

process leads to cause a reduction in the pH value of the pore solution from 12.5 to 13.5 to around 8 to 9, which causes de-passivation of protective layer of the reinforcement bars and initiates their corrosion.