Rubber

MECHANICAL
Tensile, Elongation and Modulus

Mechanical properties like the tensile strength and elongation are important design requirements for choosing the type of rubber. Tensile test is carried out as per ASTM D412 and IS 3400-1

Accelerated Heat Ageing

Rubber materials are used in a wide range of industries and are subjected to different temperatures. In accelerated heat ageing, the material is soaked at a certain temperature after which the mechanical properties are again evaluated.

The test method follows ASTM D 573 and IS 3400-4

Hardness

Shore Hardness (Durometer) testing is done at our facility as per ASTM D2240 and IS 3400-2

Abrasion

The rubbing away of material due to friction is a measure of abrasion. Taber abrasion resistance as well as rotary abrasion resistance can be performed. The test method follows IS 3400-3

Tear resistance

Tear strength is the resistance of the crack to propagate within the sample. Tear strength as per standard can be performed on Crescent and Angular Specimens as per IS 3400-12 and IS 3400-17 respectively.

PHYSICAL
Compression Set

Compression set is the amount of permanent deformation that occurs when the rubber is compressed to a specific deformation, specific time and temperature.

The test method follows ASTM D395 and IS 3400-10

Specific Gravity

The density/specific gravity is tested as per ASTM D792 and IS 3400-9

Ash Content

The ash content is measured by subjecting the samples to muffle furnace at high temperature and weight loss is calculated to find the ash content.

Different types of rubber can be analyzed including those containing the flame retardants.

Test method follows ASTM D5630 and IS 3400-22

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Polymer Identification

The type of rubber can be identified using FTIR. The analysis can also be done to get an idea about the co-polymer present. Each rubber compound has a unique IR spectrum which can be used to determine the type of polymer

The test method follows ASTM D395 and IS 3400-10

Complete Polymer Profile

The complete history of the monomer and the filler content can be determined using different methods that includes DSC and TGA. The amount of filler content, type, crystallization data are obtained.

RoHS in rubber

Hazardous elements in rubber can be tested by a variety of test methods present at our facility

Different elements like Lead, Cadium, Mercury, Chromium, PBB, PBDE can be evaluated using GC-MS, ED-XRF and ICP-OES up to very small levels of concentrations.

Resistance to Oil and Fuel

Rubbers are used as gasket material and come in direct contact with fluids like oil and fuel. To prevent the deterioration of these with time, the resistance of the rubber has to be checked. The test method used at our facility is in line with ASTM D471 and IS 3400-6

THERMAL PROPERTIES
HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE (HDT)

HDT is a relative measure of a materials ability to perform for a short time at elevated temperature while supporting a load.

It gives an indication at what temperature materials start to "soften" when exposed to a fixed load at elevated temperatures.

ATSM D 648-07: Standard test method for Deflection Temperature of plastics under flexural load.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

This technique is used to measure the energy changes in the paint (entropy) as a response to the temperature. This is very helpful in finding the glass transition temperature of coatings (Tg) which will then determine if the coating can be used in different environments. Curing property of paint can also be found, and other applications include determining the moulding temperature for plastics, crystallinity of plastics etc. It is important to have the temperature at sub-zero temperatures as some polymers have their Tg values in this range. At Microlab, the temperature range is between -120oC to 720oC

Thermo- Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)

TGA is useful to provide the profile of the paint that is used, the fillers and other constituents that make up the final coat. TGA is extremely useful when trying to diagnose the reason for a coating failure. Other applications include: reverse engineering, complete polymer profile, and filler content concentration .

Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity is an important property when trying to design materials as insulators and in heat exchanger applications. At Microlab we can also test the thermal conductivity at different temperatures ( from -50oC to 200oC ), on liquids, powders and solids. Application can be extended to Batteries, Fluids, Building Materials, Explosives, Lighting etc. Our facility is equipped with 2 types of equipment: the steady-state measurement can give precise values while the MTPS (Modified Transient Plane Source) instrument can provide values within seconds.

The standard test method for analysis follows ASTM C518, ASTM D7984 and ISO 8301

Compression Set

Resistance to Oil

rubber tensile

Shore-A Hardness

Tear Strength

Tensile Strength